The A to Z of Fabrics
Acrylic Fibre- An artificial fibre containing nitrile
Azoic Dyes- Mostly Used in batik work, they are ‘cold dyes’ containing the azoic-group.
Basic Dyes- these contain basic amino group and their use is in natural cellulosic fibres in an alkaline dye both.
Bath- It’s a basic solution, where a chemical process is carried out.
Basket weave- Its also called matt weave.
Blanket- It’s a heavy fabric having a raised finish.
Blending- The term means mixing of different fibres in a specified proportion so as to get advantages in the end result accruing from the properties of the blended fabrics
Bleaching- It’s a chemical process undertaken for improving the whiteness of a fabric, yarn or a fibre (retaining the natural colour)
Bleeding- when a fabric looses its colour when in contact with a solvent its called bleeding
Blinding- happens when you remove the lustre of textiles.
Blindstitch- An invisible stitch on the fabric face or a garment
Boucle (Booclay) yarn- A yarn which has tight loops formed across its length
Broghterners- These are chemical constituents which when added to detergents increase the brightness of a fabric
Brocade- Used extensively for silk saris, this fabric has very exquisite effects by using satin weaves against a plain weave background
Brushing- The end result of this finishing process is a raised effect, it involves passing the fabric over two or more brushes
Calendaring- It’s a finishing process for promoting smoothness and shine to a fabrics texture
Contemporary- Currently in Vogue
Cool Colours- Blue, Violet and Green are considered cool colours
Calico- It’s a plain weave cotton fabric having a medium cover factor
Cambric- It’s a light weighing, closely woven fabric (cottons or linen)
Chambray- A light net, plain weave of cotton. A blend of synthetic yarns.
Checks- A pattern made of squares.
Calvary twill- A warp-faced fabric having double twill lines separated by grooves. It is a heavy weight fabric.
Colour fastness- The property by virtue of which the dyed material has resistance against bleeding on washed or exposed to light, gas, rubbing
Combed Yarn- The yarn whose slivers have been carded and combed
Composite yarn- This yarn made of both staple and filament fibres
Card- A general term used for a) plied b) cabled yarns and structures made by braiding, knitting or weaving.
Corduroy- A cut pile having cards or ribs in the warp direction e.g. cut velveteen fabrics
Cotton- Natural vegetable fibre obtained from seed hair of plants of the gossipyum family
Curing- It is the procedure of setting of resin or plastic
Count- It’s a ratio of the yarn or a fibres weight to its length
Count of Cloth- The number of picks per inch/cm and ends per inch/cm in the cloth
Direct Dyes- These dyes made of vegetable fibres
Disperse Dyes- Dyes used only for synthetics e.g. Polyester
Drill- A twill weave, piece dyed fabric. It is usually made in 0.7m width
Discharge (printing)- It’s a method employed in printing where by applying a chemical substance on the specific areas of a dyed fabric, the dye gets removed or discharged leaving behind a coloured or white pattern
Dupion- Is a fabric woven from imitation silk (artificial fibre)
Elastic Fabric- A fabric having extensible properties like lycra
Embossing- It’s a method to get a raised feel or depressed feel of the fabric by passing it through heated rollers
Embroidery- A method where a decorative pattern was sewn by handle through a needle or by a sewing machine but more latterly by computerised control of multi head embroidery stations
Embroidery Lace- Embroidery done on lace material
Fabric- Term used to address all materials whether they may be made of fibres, yarns, lace, etc
Fastness- It is the resistance which a material provides to an agent
Filament- An artificial lengthy and continuous fibre
Finishing- Treatment given to a fabric to improve its look and texture properties
Forte of a garment- Means the strong point of a garment
Frey- When handling some fabrics- the threads which come out are called frey
Gaberdine- It’s a worsted fabric with a prominent twill face
Georgette- Crepe fine fabric with alternate twisted tarn
Fad- Short term fashion (trends) are called fads
Grain- A synonym for the length wise (weft yarn) or cross-wise (warp yarn) threads of the fabric
Hoisery- Knitted articles
Haute Couture- Hi- Fashion garments
Hue- Is the shades and degrees of colour
Imitation velvet- Plain weave with small tufts of fibres which are joined by an adhesive
Interlining- Woven or non woven fabric layer between outer cloth wall and the inner to give it an insulation and shape
Jacquard- It’s a weaving machine which produces very intricate designs as it can control each warp yarn
Jersey- It’s a plain knit fabric
Lace- Open work fabric
Lawn- Light thin cotton fabric
Lustre- Gloss of textiles
Non Woven- Fabric from a web of fibres held together by various methods other than felting, colouring, or intertwining
Organdy- Thin transparent stiff effect on cotton
Polyamide- Polymerized product of alcohols and acids
Poplin- A plain weave fabric with ribbed effect
Press mark- Undesirable shinning lines on the right side of the garment due to incorrect ironing
Pucker- Is to draw up into folds or wrinkles
Raw Silk- Silk which comes directly from cocoon with a little twist in the thread
Screen Printing- A method of decoration where either water based or plasistisol ink! Is forced through differing sizes of silk mesh to leave one or many colours either in (water based) or an (plastisol) the fabric of the garment
Seam line- The line which shows where the seam should be stitched
Silhouette- Its an outline of a garment
Spun Silk- Silk yarn from short a short filament
Suede Cloth- A finish which resembles chamois leather
Staple- It is the average length of a fibre
Surface Decoration Ornamenting the surface of a fabric or garment (e.g. Embroidery etc)
Tafetta- Plain closely woven filament fabric
Tapestry- Yarn dyed figured fabrics in jacquard loom
Taper to Decrease width gradually and bring it to an end point
Thread Count- Is the number of warp and weft yarns in one square-inch of a fabric (warp yarn x weft yarn per sq. inch)
Trend-Fashion is not static, they are constantly moving, their movement has a definite direction. The direction in which fashion moves is called Fashion Trend
Trim- To cut off the ragged edges below the seam line to prevent the garment from being bulky and to give the seam a neat finish
Terylene- British polyester fibre
Tweed- A rough fabric of wiry heavy wools invented by the English
Twill weave– Weft interlaced with warp to form diagonal ridges in fabric
Velour- A cut pile fabric heavier than velvet, longer piles with fine raised finish of cotton/woollen
Warm Colours- Colours like Red, Orange and Yellow are classified as warm colours
Worsted Fabric- A fabric manufactured wholly from worsted yarns, the exception being presence of some decoration threads of other fibres
Yarn- A product of substantial length and relatively small cross-section consisting of fibres and/or filament (s).
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